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Glossary of Domain Name Terms
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ACK (Acknowledge)
An acknowledgment (approval) from an authorized contact for a domain name record that a requested modification to a domain name's registration information should be completed. When a modification request is received from a source that is not an authorized contact/agent, the request will be rejected by the InterNIC and a message will be sent to the listed contacts asking them to ACK (approve) or NAK (No Acknowledgment or disapprove) the modification.

Additional Servers
Any name servers, aside from the primary and secondary name servers listed on the Domain Name Registration Agreement, that will be available to resolve a particular domain name to its corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) number(s).

Administrative Contact/Agent
The administrative contact/agent is an individual or role account authorized to interact with Network Solutions on behalf of the domain name registrant. The administrative contact/agent should be able to answer non-technical questions about the domain name's registration and the domain name registrant. It is strongly recommended that this contact/agent be the registrant or someone from the registrant's organization.

Anonymous FTP
A File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an Internet standard for transferring files between computers. Most FTP transfers require you log in to the system supplying the information by using an authorized username and password. However, a variation known as anonymous FTP lets you log in as anonymous i.e., you don't need a username or a password.

APNIC (Asia-Pacific Network Information Center)
APNIC is a collaborative effort consisting of national Network Information Centers (NICs) and Internet Service Providers within the Asian-Pacific region. The APNIC acts as a regional Internet Registry, providing the allocation of Internet Protocol (IP) address space to the Asian-Pacific region.

ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers)
The newly-formed, nonprofit organization established to manage the allocation of Internet Protocol (IP) numbers for the areas currently served by the InterNIC's Registration Services: the Americas, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa. The National Science Foundation (NSF) approved the establishment of ARIN on June 24, 1997.

ASCII-armored
A feature of Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), which encases an encrypted message in ASCII, allowing the message to be sent via e-mail as a regular message.

Authentication
The process of verifying the identity of an individual or organization. Authentication enables someone to verify that individuals and organizations are who they say they are. Authentication allows the recipient in an electronic transaction to be confident of both the identity of the sender and the integrity of the message.

Authorization
A process to verify that an individual or organization that has requested an action actually has the right to make the request. Requiring a password to modify a domain names registration information is an example of authorization.

Auto-parser
An automated program that extracts information from the fields in the registration forms. The auto-parser will detect errors or incomplete information in the registration forms. Upon receipt of complete and correct registration forms the auto-parser enters the appropriate data into Network Solutions' domain name database.

Auto Responder
An automated program that acknowledges receipt of an e-mail message (e.g., a Domain Name Registration Agreement, a question, or some other type of electronic correspondence) and creates a tracking number for the e-mail message. The auto responder sends the acknowledgment via e-mail to the requester; the subject line of the e-mail message will contain the tracking number.

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Bandwidth
The rate at which data can be sent across a particular connection or pathway.

Billing Contact/Agent
As used by InterNIC, the billing contact/agent contact is the person or role account designated to receive the invoice for domain name registration fees and renewal (re-registration) fees. The billing contact should be in a position to ensure prompt payment of fees.

Browser:
A software used to search and retrieve information from the World Wide Web. The two commonly used are Microsoft Explorer and Netscape.

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Clear-text Password
The plain text version of an encrypted password.

com (.com)
The top level domain originally intended for commercial entities. One of the worldwide top level domain, in which any person or organization may register a domain name.

Contact/Agent
Contacts/Agents are individuals or groups who represent the registrant on matters related to the registrant's domain name. There are three types of contacts/agents: administrative, technical, or billing. The entity listed as the administrative, technical, or billing contact/agent should be the entity best able to answer questions about that particular aspect of the domain name's registration, and should be authorize to represent the domain name registrant. A contact/agent may be a single person or may be a group or organization where several individuals act in a role (e.g., Internet Service Provider (ISP) Support Center).

Contact Form (Contact Template)
The electronic form used to register a new domain name contact/agent or modify information for an existing contact. Formerly referred to as the contact template.

Cookie
A file or data item left on your computer by a server or other system you've connected to. They are most commonly used to allow the server to record information about what screens you've already seen and any personalizing information you've supplied. Many users find this an invasion of Privacy, as few systems tell you they are collecting and recording data. There are a number of anti-cookie software that automatically erase any such data between visits to your site.

Country Code
A standard two-letter abbreviation for the name of a country. It is used with domain names with locations outside the United States. For example, lu in mmhaq.net refers to Luxembourg. For a complete list of country codes, click here.

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Deactivation
The process of removing a domain name from the zone files for the top level domains. When a domain name is deactivated, the Domain Name System (DNS) will no longer have the information needed to resolve the domain name to its corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) number(s), effectively disabling the domain name as a tool for locating the related computers or organizations. InterNIC refers to this status as being On Hold. The domain name record, however, remains in InterNIC' domain name database.

Debit Accounts
A payment system for InterNIC' customers who regularly register large numbers of domain names, e.g., Internet Service Providers (ISPs). Customers establish a debit account with a minimum deposit, and then as they receive invoices they contact InterNIC' debit accounts section and request that the invoices be paid from the available account funds.

Deletion
The process of removing a domain name and its corresponding record from the Domain Name System (DNS) and InterNIC' domain name database. A deleted domain name cannot be used to locate computers on the Internet and will be made available for other parties to register on a first-come, first-served basis. A domain name may be deleted at the request of the domain name registrant, as a result of non-payment of fee, or due to circumstances particular to individual cases.

Dialup
A method of connecting to the Internet via the regular phone system through a modem, rather than one through an internal network (LAN) or permanent leased telephone line. This is the most likely way you would connect to the Internet from home if you have not made any special arrangement with your local telephone company or your Internet Service Provider (ISP). For alternative connections, you might want to consult with your ISP first.

Digital Signature
The digital equivalent of an authentic, handwritten signature. A digital signature is a piece of data attached to an electronic file, asserting that the owner of the digital signature wrote or authorized the file.

Domain Name
A domain-name is your own cyber-estate. This estate, just like its physical counterpart, has its value depending on its address (name) and its content. You can charge your visitors or give them a free tour, or run a side business as part of the estate. Just like a 5th Avenue address is limited and also is more valuable than the vast majority of other addresses, the value of your domain-name can vary from a few dollars to -- well, some are going for a million dollars. We cannot tell you what furniture, art work, or side business to have on your cyber-estate, but your address would surely enhance the value of its content, or might actually destroy its value if the name doesn't attract clients.

On a technical level, it is an addressing construct used for identifying and locating computers on the Internet. Domain names provide a system of easy-to-remember Internet addresses, which can be translated by the Domain Name System (DNS) into the numeric addresses (Internet Protocol (IP)) numbers) used by the network. A domain name is hierarchical and often conveys information about the type of entity using the domain name. A domain name is simply a label that represents a domain, which is a subset of the total domain name space. Domain names at the same level of the hierarchy must be unique; for example there can be only one com at the top level of the hierarchy, and only one DomainMart.com at the next level of the hierarchy.

Domain Name Disputes
Disputes that arise over conflicting positions as to who has the right to register a specific domain name. Disputes often occur when a domain name that is the same, or similar to, a valid registered trademark is registered by a party that is not the owner of the registered trademark. A central factor in domain name disputes is the fact that domain names at the same level of the hierarchy must be unique. You might want to consult InterNIC Domain Name Dispute Policy.

Domain Name Registration Agreement
The legally binding contract between InterNIC, the registrar for com, net, org, and edu, domains, and the individual or organization applying for a domain name. The Domain Name Registration Agreement must be completed and submitted electronically to register a new domain name with InterNIC. The Domain Name Registration Agreement is also the form used to update and modify information in a domain name record.

Domain Name Space
An Internet addressing scheme that is hierarchical in nature and uses a tree structure to organize information that describes networks and computers. The domain name space is the sum total of domain names that currently represent networks and computers, as well as all of the possible domain names - not yet in use - which may potentially represent networks and computers. Also, the realm of networks, computers, and other network devices that can be described and represented by the Domain Name System (DNS).

Domain Name System (DNS)
A local database that translates domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. It is much easier for humans to remember and use names than IP numbers, which are what computers need to find each other on the Internet. Individual Internet computers around the globe maintain their specific portion of this database, and the data held in each portion of the database is made available to all computers and users on the Internet. The DNS comprises computers, data files, software, and people working together.

When you enter [www.DomainMart.com] in your browser, the local DNS server finds a match and connects your to the site. Most people who access the internet from home use an Internet Service Provider (ISP). The ISP typically assigns Internet Protocol (IP) numbers dynamically to these users. That is, they have a different IP number each time they log on to the internet. This allows a provider to use a limited number of addresses for all of their users as the ISPs total subscriber base is never logged in at once.

To be able to register a domain name, your ISP must assign you a static IP number (one that never changes). This is usually an additional cost. Of course, you still need a computer system that will host your domain. Most ISPs offer domain hosting.

dot or .
The top of the hierarchy or root in the Domain Name System (DNS).

Download
Transfer a file from a remote computer to yours via a communications line or telephone.

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edu (.edu)
The top level domain designated for four-year, degree-granting colleges and universities.

Email Forwarding
A process to redirect your incoming mail to a specific mailbox. For example, if you have a number of email addresses, forwarding all your email to a single mailbox makes keeping tracking of them much easier, as you only need to check one mailbox, rather than checking all of them individually. Consult your ISP for fees.

Encrypted Password
A password that has been jumbled to protect it from being discovered and used by someone other than the person to whom it belongs. Encrypted passwords generally have an equivalent clear-text password. InterNIC' Guardian plan allows the use of encrypted passwords, which help to ensure that modification of a domain name record, contact record, or host record can only be completed by an authorized source.

Encryption
The process of jumbling, or encoding, information in an effort to guarantee that only the intended recipient can read the information.

Error Codes
At InterNIC, standard codes that are used to indicate common errors in the Domain Name Registration Agreement, the contact forms, or the host form that prevent the processing of the Domain Name Registration Agreement or forms.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)
A File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is an Internet standard for transferring files between computers. Most FTP transfers require you log in to the system supplying the information by using an authorized username and password. However, a variation known as anonymous FTP lets you log in as anonymous, i.e., you don't need a username or a password.

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gov (.gov)
The top level domain designated for agencies and branches of the United States Federal Government. State and local governments in the United States should use the us top level country code domain. Prior to October 1, 1997, registration in gov was handled by InterNIC; the General Services Administration (GSA) began handling registration in the top level domain gov starting October 1, 1997.

Guardian
An authorization and authentication] scheme developed by InterNIC that helps protect domain name records, contact records, and host records from unauthorized updates. Guardian is available free of charge and helps support secure registration transactions in an automated environment. It also provides flexible security mechanisms that can accommodate changes in organizations, personnel, and security needs.

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Hit
As applied to the Internet, it represents a single entry to a web page. Hit counts have become an acceptable proxy for measuring the success of web sites. However, the count doesn't measure whether the visitors stayed to read anything, how long, or whether they are repeat or accidental visitors.

Host (Name Server)
As applied to the Internet, it is a computer with an Internet address that runs the server programs that supply resources and services to the Net. InterNIC uses the term to refer to name servers, the computers that have both the software and the data required to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.

Host Form (Host Template)
The electronic form used to register a new host (name server) or modify information for an existing host. Formerly referred to as the Host Template.

Hostmaster
A role account established by InterNIC to handle email related to domain name registrations. Hostmaster also is a term commonly used by other organizations for role accounts that handle email related to network administration responsibilities.

HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language)
The computer language used in creating web pages for the Internet. Although official HTML standards exist, in practice there are added extensions to the language that companies, such as Netscape and Microsoft, support in their browsers.

HTTP (Hyper Text Transport Protocol)
The set of rules that the Internet uses for requesting and supplying web pages and other information. It is what you see in front of a standard Internet address, as in http://, to indicate to the browser program to use this protocol to retrieve information on the web page.

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IAB (Internet Architecture Board)
IAB oversees the development of Internet standards and protocols, and acts as a liaison between the Internet Society (ISOC) and other standards bodies.

IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority)
The function that currently oversees registration for various Internet Protocol parameters, such as port numbers, protocol and enterprise numbers, options, codes, and types. The IANA function is currently located at the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California in Marina del Rey, California

IESG (Internet Engineering Steering Group)
The Internet Engineering Steering Group acts as the operational management arm of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
IETF is an international, voluntary body consisting of network designers, engineers, researchers, vendors, and other interested individuals who work together to address and resolve technical and operational problems on the Internet and develop Internet standards and protocols. The IETF, which was formed by the Internet Architecture Board (IAB), meets three times a year, however the bulk of the collaboration and work takes place on the various mailing lists maintained by its participants.

Internet Protocol (IP) Numbers (IP addresses)
A unique, numeric identifier used to specify hosts and networks. Internet Protocol (IP) numbers are part of a global, standardized scheme for identifying machines that are connected to the Internet. They are expressed as four numbers between 0 and 255, separated by periods, for example: 188.41.20.11. IP allocation for the Americas, the Caribbean, and sub-Saharan Africa are currently handled by the American Registry for Internet Numbers.

Internet Service Provider (ISP)
A person, organization, or company that provides access to the Internet. In addition to Internet access, many ISPs provide other services such as Web hosting, name service, and other proprietary services. Click here for a list of ISPs.

InterNIC
The name given to a project that originated under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF). Under the current agreement with the U.S. Government, InterNIC, Inc., as the InterNIC, provides domain name registration services in .com, .net, .org, and .edu.

Invoice
The bill for a domain name registration fee or renewal (re-registration) fee. Invoices are sent to the billing contact via both postal mail and email.

ISOC (Internet Society)
The ISOC is an international organization that was founded in 1992. The ISOC is dedicated to the expansion, development and availability of the Internet and holds an annual meeting, INET, in various location around the world.

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Key-Ring
Key-rings are used in public-key encryption systems such as Pretty Good Privacy (PGP). A pair of keys that consists of both a public key and its corresponding private key. Data encrypted with someone's public key can only be decrypted with the corresponding private key, and vice versa. Key-rings are associated with an encryption system known as Pretty Good Privacy (PGP).

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Lame Delegation
Listing a host (name server) that does not contain a Start of Authority (SOA) record for a domain name on a Domain Name Registration Agreement.

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Mail-From
One of the authentication schemes used by InterNIC. In the mail-from scheme, the email address that is used to send a modification request is compared to the email addresses that are on file for the individuals or organizations who are listed as authorized points of contact/agent for the domain name, the contact, or the host. The mail-from option under the Guardian] plan allows the contact to specify two email addresses, rather than just one, which can help avoid problems with authentication later if one of the email addresses should change.

Manual Process
Not automated; processed by humans.

Manual Queue
The log of Registration Forms (Domain Name Registration Agreements, contact forms, and host forms) that require human review because they cannot be automatically processed due to errors or incomplete information.

Megabyte (MB)
A million bytes.

mil (.mil)
The top level domain designated for United States military entities.

Modem
A device that changes computer data into formats that can be more easily transmitted by telephone or other communications link.

Modification
The process of updating an existing domain name record, contact record, or host (name server) record per the request of a domain name's contact/agent. There is no additional charge to modify an existing domain, contact, or host record. Keeping these records up to date is critical to the smooth operation of the Domain Name System (DNS), and it is the responsibility of the registrant to ensure that domain name record(s) are kept up to date.

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NAK (No Acknowledgement)
A none acknowledgement (disapproval) from an authorized point of contact/agent for a domain name record, contact record, or host record that a requested modification should not be completed. When a modification request is received from a source that is not an authorized contact, the request will be rejected and a message will be sent to the listed contacts asking them to ACK (Acknowledge) or NAK (disapprove) the modification.

Name Server
Also called a host (name server)r. A computer that has both the software and the data (zone file) needed to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.

Name Service (Domain Name Service)
Providing individuals or organizations with domain name-to-Internet Protocol (IP) number resolution by maintaining and making available the hardware, software, and data needed to perform this function. Many Internet Service Providers (ISPs) operate name server and provide their customers with name service when they register a domain name. Most individuals are not in a position to operate a name server on their own and will need to make arrangements for name service with an ISP or some other person or organization.

NANOG (North American Network Operators Group)
A forum organized by Merit Network, Inc. to provide for the exchange of technical information within the community of network service providers. NANOG members can include private, public, federal, commercial or other networks that consider themselves providers of Internet services. The members meet three times a year to discuss operational issues and other technical matters. Membership is not limited to North America but the focus of the forum is on North American network issues.

net (.net)
The top level domain designated for entities and computers that represent part of the Internet's infrastructure. Originally intended for use by Network Information Centers (NICs), Network Operations Centers (NOCs), administrative computers (such as a name server) and network node computers. One of the worldwide top level domains.

NIC Handle
A NIC Handle is a unique identifier, which can be up to 10 alpha-numeric characters, assigned to each domain name record, contact record, and network record in InterNIC domain name database. NIC handles should be used on registration forms whenever possible, as they save time and help to ensure accuracy in the records.

Notification
The process of informing individuals and organizations who are listed as authorized points of contact/agent on a domain name record, contact record, or host record that the registry has received a request to modify information in one of the records with which the authorized contacts are associated. All notifications are sent via email to the email addresses that are on file with InterNIC for the authorized points of contact. The notification process provides each authorized point of contact with the opportunity to acknowledge the requested modification with the response ACK or to refuse to acknowledge the requested modification, with the response NAK. Notification is intended to keep all those involved with a domain name or host informed of actions that can affect the operation and functioning of the Host (Name Server).

NSF (National Science Foundation)
An independent U.S. government agency that sponsors, funds, and fosters research and development in science and engineering. The NSF has gradually transitioned its role and responsibility in the Internet to the private sector, however it continues to be involved in a number of experimental networking efforts.

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org (.org)
The top level domain designated for miscellaneous entities that do not fit under any of the other top level domains. Typically used for non-profit organizations. One of the worldwide top level domains.

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Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
A commonly used encryption system, invented by Phillip Zimmerman. PGP is based on public key encryption, and is one of the authentication schemes available through InterNIC' Guardian plan.

Primary Server
The name server that will contain authoritative information for the domain name and will be used to resolve that domain name to its corresponding IP number(s). The designation of primary means that this name server will be used first and will be relied upon before any of the other name servers that may be listed on the Domain Name Registration Agreement. This information is required for domain name registration.

Private Key Encryption
An encryption method in which both the sender and recipient of a message share a single, common key that is used to both encrypt and decrypt the message.

Public Key Encryption
An encryption method that uses the concept of a key-ring. The key-ring has two keys - a public key that is made available to everyone and a private, or secret, key that is known only by the private key holder. The public and private keys are designed to work together. Anyone can use the public key to encrypt data, but only the person with the corresponding private key can decrypt the data; this helps to protect the content of messages. Alternatively, anyone can use the public key to decrypt data, but only if it was encrypted with the corresponding private key; this helps to ensure the identity of the person sending the data. Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) is a type of Public Key Encryption.

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Registrant
The individual or organization that registers a specific domain name with InterNIC. This individual or organization holds the right to use that specific domain name for a specified period of time, provided certain conditions are met and the registration fees are paid. This person or organization is the legal entity bound by the terms of the Domain Name Registration Agreement.

Registrant Name Change Agreement (RNCA)
A Registrant Name Change Agreement (RNCA) is a document by which a domain name registrant changes its name, as it appears in InterNIC' records. Specifically, the RNCA must be used if the Registrant wishes to:

Correct a typographical or other minor error in the Registrant's name;
Change the Registrant's legal name; or Transfer the domain name to another party.

Registration
The process through which individuals and organizations obtain a domain name. Registration of a domain name enables the individual or organization to use that particular domain name for a specified period of time, provided certain conditions are met and payment for services is made. Registering of a new domain name with InterNIC is accomplished by completing and submitting the Domain Name Registration Agreement.

Registration Fee
The charge for registering, a domain name. InterNIC' registration fee covers the cost of processing the initial registration and maintaining the domain name record for two years. For domain names with registration dates on or after April 1, 1998, the fee is $70.00 USD. After the initial two-year period, the domain name is subject to renewal (re-registration) and the renewal (re-registration) fee will be due on an annual basis if the registrant wishes to renew the domain name's registration.

Registration Forms
Forms that are used to submit and process registration requests. These forms are used to register new domain names, new contacts for domain names, and new hosts (name servers) as well as to update domain name, contact, and host records. There are both Web versions and plain text (ASCII) versions of the forms. You can obtain the forms from http://

Registry
A registry is responsible for delegating Internet addresses such as Internet Protocol (IP) numbers and domain names, and keeping a record of those addresses and the information associated with their delegation. Examples of regional IP registries include Asian-Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC), American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN), and Reseaux IP Europeens (RIPE). Examples of domain name registries include InterNIC' InterNIC operation (.com, .net, and .org) and the ISO 3166 country code registries (e.g., .fr, .de, .uk, and .us).

Renewal (Re-registration)
The process of reinitiating a domain name's registration for a specified period of time. Renewing an existing domain name with InterNIC is accomplished by simply paying the renewal (re-registration) fee which covers one year of continued registration and maintenance, and agreeing to be bound by the terms and conditions of the then existing Domain Name Registration Agreement, including the Domain Name Dispute Policy.

Renewal (Re-registration) Fee
The charge for renewing an existing domain name registration. EuroDNS renewal (re-registration) fee covers one year of maintenance for the domain name record and is assessed each year on the anniversary of the original registration. For domain names with anniversary dates on or after April 1, 1998, the fee is €50.

Renewal (Re-registration) Notice
A notice sent to registrants 60 days before the anniversary of their registration date to let them know that their domain name will be due for renewal (re-registration) and that an invoice will be sent for the renewal (re-registration) fees.

Resolve
The process by which domain names are matched with corresponding Internet Protocol (IP) numbers. Resolution is accomplished by a combination of computers and software, referred to as name servers, which use the data in the Domain Name System (DNS) to determine which IP numbers correspond to a particular domain name.

RIPE NCC (Reseaux IP Europeens Network Coordination Center)
A collaborative effort that consists of approximately 400 organizations, such as European Internet service providers. The RIPE NCC acts as a regional Internet Registry, providing the allocation of Internet Protocol (IP) numbers to the European region.

RNCA (Registrant Name Change Agreement)

Role Account
A group name under which more than one individual may perform a specific function. Role accounts are typically used to prevent a critical function - for example, handling incoming email about domain name registrations - from being tied to a particular individual.

Root
The top of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy. Often referred to as the dot or ..

Root server
A machine that has the software and data needed to locate name servers that contain authoritative data for the top level domains (e.g., root, servers know which name servers contain authoritative data for .com, .net, .fr, .uk. etc.). The root servers are, in fact, name server, and contain authoritative data for the very top of the Domain Name System (DNS) hierarchy. Currently, technical specifications limit the number of root servers to 13. These machines are located around the globe, in the U.S., the U.K., Sweden, and Japan.

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Second Level Domain
In the Domain Name System (DNS), the next highest level of the hierarchy underneath the top level domains. In a domain name, that portion of the domain name that appears immediately to the left of the top level domain. For example, the DomainMart in DomainMart.com.

Secondary Server
A server is a computer station on a network that handles special tasks, such as disk storage, printing, or communications. A dedicated server handles only its special tasks. An Internet server is a program that interacts with user programs. For example, a web server provides World Wide Web pages to your browser program. InterNIC's use of the designation of secondary indicates that the name server will be used in addition to and as a backup for the primary name server that is listed on the Domain Name Registration Agreement. [See also: Primary Server]

Secure Online Payment System
A system that allows InterNIC' customers to pay for their domain name registration and renewal (re-registration) fee 24 hours a day, seven days a week, by entering their credit card information directly via the Web. The system provides a fast and secure method of payment and requires that the customer have a browser that will support Secure Sockets Layer (SSL).

Server
A computer station on a network that handles special tasks, such as disk storage, printing, or communications. A dedicated server handles only its special tasks. An Internet server is a program that interacts with user programs. For example, a web server provides World Wide Web pages to your browser program.

Shell Account
An Internet account that is set up so your local computer acts as a terminal on a multi-user UNIX system that's connected to the Internet, rather than as if your computer were directly connected to the Internet itself. This allows you to use all the normal UNIX commands and store and process information on the host computer.

Start of Authority (SOA) Resource Record
A type of record used in the distributed database that is the Domain Name System (DNS) to indicate that a particular name server contains authoritative data for a particular domain.

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Third Level Domain
In the Domain Name System (DNS, the next highest level of the hierarchy underneath the second level domains. It is that portion of the domain name that appears two segments to the left of the top level domain. Third level domains are not the portion of an email address that appears in front of the @ symbol - for example, the webmaster in webmaster@DomainMart.com is not a third level domain. [see also: Second Level Domain, Top Level Domain, )]

Top Level Domain (TLD)
In the Domain Name System (DNS), the highest level of the hierarchy after the root. In a domain name, that portion of the domain name that appears furthest to the right. For example, the com in DomainMart.com.

Technical Contact/Agent
The technical contact is the person or organization that maintains the primary domain name server. The technical contact should be able to answer technical questions about the domain name's primary domain name server and work with technically-oriented people in other domains to solve technical problems that affect the domain name.

Tracking Number
The reference number assigned to an email message when the email message is received by euroDNS at the info@mmhaq.net address.

Trademark
A word, phrase, graphic image, or other symbol used to represent a business, commercial, or other organization. Trademarks are used to identify the organization to the public and to consumers and are intended to identify the organization's products and services as well. To be recognized as a trademark, the word, phrase, graphic image, or symbol must be registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (in the United States) or, in the case of other countries, with the appropriate authority for that country.

Transfer
The process of changing the party whom is listed as the domain name registrant. The party taking over the domain name is responsible for paying a new registration fee. Domain name transfers are processed using the Registrant Name Change Agreement (RNCA).

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URL (Uniform Resource Locator)
A pointer to a page on the WWW or other resource on the Internet. A URL starts with the http:// for web-pages, or ftp:// for FTP. That's followed by the domain name (http://www.domainmart.com/), or the path to a document such as this (http://www.DomainMart.com/news/Glossary_Terms.htm)

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VeriSign Server Digital ID
Server Digital IDs are used in much the same way that a business license or articles of incorporation are used in the real world to provide verification of an organization's identity to the people with whom the organization does business. VeriSign Server Digital IDs, which are the IDs available from VeriSign, Inc., are used by organizations wanting to Authenticate Web sites, establish secure sessions and enable vertical applications such as Internet Electronic Data Interchange (EDI). Digital IDs make it possible for a Web site to assure visitors of its true identity, enabling users to avoid fraudulent or spoofed Web sites. Digital IDs for servers also enable Web sites to establish secure sessions with visitors - a private connection over the Internet that cannot be penetrated by external parties.

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Whois
A searchable database maintained by InterNIC, which contains information about networks, networking organizations, domain names, and the contacts associated with them for the com, org, net, edu, and ISO 3166 country code top level domains. Also, the protocol, or set of rules, that describes the application used to access the database. Other organizations have implemented the Whois protocol and maintain separate and distinct Whois databases for their respective domains.

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Zone
A portion of the total domain name space that is represented by the data stored on a particular name server. The name server has authority over the zone - or the particular portion of the domain name space - described by that data. [see also: Zone File]

Zone File
A file that contains data describing a portion of the domain name space. Zone files contain the information needed to resolve domain names to Internet Protocol (IP) numbers.

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